Senin, 27 Agustus 2012

Periode-periode prose


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TA 2011/2012

1.      Restoration period (1660-1700)

King Charles I

King Charles I was executed in January 1649. He is the supreme King of Britain, the sovereignty in England, Scotland and Ireland. However, he gained much respect from Parliament to the theory makes sense or is commonly known as the Divine Rights of Kings. Parliament was afraid he was turned into an absolute monarchy and democracy would eventually sideline so carefully established in Britain. In the last years, he was involved in the Civil War. First English Civil War (1642) is contrary to the Parliament and the Puritans in England. He was defeated in the War of 1645, but he kept his ideology. In 1948, there was the Second Civil War, and he was defeated again in 1649. This time, he was arrested, tried, convicted and eventually executed for treason. Parliament took over, forming a republic which became known as the British Commonwealth. Monarchy, it seems, is over.

Restoration of the monarchy by Charles II

In 1660, the son of Charles I, Charles II assumed the monarchy once again. The resurrection of the monarchy caused by a series of significant historical incidents. One of the main leaders of the republican government formed after Charles I Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the title of England, Scotland and Ireland. He also was commander of the army which fought against Charles I in the English Civil War. Old Steel, as he is called, bravely took England, Scotland and Ireland under the rule of unanimous republic after the execution of Charles I, and he's actually one of the main person responsible for the execution.

Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 of a number of diseases. Historians attribute his death malaria and urinary tract infections, but there may be some other reason. Succeeded by his son Richard Cromwell as Lord Protectorate. However, Richard is not popular with the Army. Army prompt in removing him. Several other transfer of power later, Charles II issued what is known as the Declaration of Breda on April 4, 1660. Declaration is to put the fact that he is interested in receiving the Crown of England. Consider the various failed to seize power in England, Parliament accepted the terms.

On May 8, 1649, the House accepted that Charles II had legitimate king of England after the death of Charles I. Charles II returned from The Hague, where he was exiled, and assumed the British monarchy. This is what is known as the English Restoration.

Restoration England - Aftermath of Historic

The arrival of Charles II to England as it is celebrated as the Queen of Oak Apple Day, and declared a public holiday. But the monarchy was restored under Charles II wanted to eliminate the threat in the future. For this reason, several bloody incidents following the Restoration.

Most important is the execution of all the judges in charge of the implementation of Charles I. 59 the judge passed the order, but 28 of them already dead for a while. Most of the remaining judges tried for treason against the Crown and ordered to be hanged, drawn and four, which is one of the most brutal punishment ever given. People who are sentenced to be hanged so that for a short time on a wooden frame with rope, brought down when they were alive, then cut open and his bowels and entrails were burned before them, and finally beheaded and cut into four pieces. People who are punished in this way is John Cooke, leader of the prosecution, facing this way. Cromwell, who died before the body was exhumed and executed. His head was displayed after the execution and finally buried only in 1960.

Some of the nobilities and knighthoods that Cromwell has provided dissolved. 30 new knighthoods Cromwell created all declared invalid by Charles II. But he received 6 of 12 baronetcies and one viscountcy that Cromwell had been given.

English Restoration - End Restoration

There are several opinions as Restoration England is really over. Some people just run the event again as the Restoration of Charles II, while others argue that the whole regime of the Restoration. Others believe that applies to the period of the Restoration of Charles II rise in 1660 with the fall of James II in 1688. In the world of literature, there are different viewpoints about Restoration England. They continued restoration of the old analog John Dryden, the famous British poet, critic and playwright, and claims that depart from the 1660 Restoration to the death of Dryden in 1700r.

John Dryden ( Auregzebe )
2.      Period August (1750 -1970)

The period of literary terms in August came from the authors at about 18th - century reign of George I of England. The authors looked at the literature at that time was a reflection of the great works of the reign of Emperor Augustus in Ancient Roman times.
In this period full of the spirit of creativity that is reflected from the UK, Scotland and Ireland who finds himself in the midst of economic progress, ample opportunity in education and the Industrial Revolution that resulted in progress in the field of science thus affecting the shape or type of literature produced at that time.

Characteristic of august period
The existence of the desire for system and order in writing is a major feature of the literary works of this period. Great works of the reign of Emperor Augustus in the days of Ancient Rome is a mecca British authors in this period.
Other characteristics are: a style that is clear, accurate, simple, and uniform and eliminate the impression of individuality is a demand that must be met in a literary work in order to receive the community. Literature of this period also had a tendency to mengintelektualkan literature under the influence of the industrial revolution.

1. Daniel Dafoe:pelopor karya fiksi realistis, seorang pedagang, agen rahasia, artawan dan penulis yg produktif
a. The life and the strange surprising adventure of robinson crusoe, marinir yg kapalnya terdampar di pulau terpencil
2. Jonathan Swift:humor tinggi,intelek dan sekretaris pribadi sir william temple setelah lulus dari Trinity, ciri2:sederhana, jelas, pilihan kata tepat, ekonomis dalam kata
a. Tale of a tub dan the battle of a book, satir yg berkaitan dgn korupsi di bidang agama dan pendidikan
3. Samuel Johnson, pengikutya James Boswel
a. The vanity of human wishes,ttg puisi Johnson

        3. Pre-Romantic period (1750-1800)

a. Social and Political Background
    1. King George III reigned from 1738-1820. He is the king of a hostile once even with absolute rule. He wants all political forces in his hands. In political parties and parliament, he was always the opposite opinion.
    2. England became industrialized countries (previously agricultural country) around the 1700s. This causes the working hours of workers getting old, besides children and women are required to work in the mines and factories. Social impacts caused by the emergence of the rich and the poor. The rich are meant for those who have a place of business, while the poor are meant for those who work as laborers, who live in very poor condition.

     3. The emergence period of reaction against the rules in August when the poet must follow certain rules in working order in accordance with standard requirements at the time.

b. General Characteristics
    1. Do not use 'heroic couplet' as a standard rule in the period of August showed a tendency to no longer comply with the regulations stipulated by the French classics.

    2. Materials derived from the classical works that are widely used in the period of August is becoming obsolete, the poets of this period have a source of inspiration for their work from their own country. This gives rise to a yearning for the past, its own culture and dialect of the people of the area.
    3. The use of rhyme as an outpouring of feeling more than a statement of mind.

c. Characteristics of Literature

In this period, the emergence of a healthy mind greatly affects the poets or writers. As for things that are a source of inspiration in the pre-romantic period are:
A. Humility in the daily life of community.
2. Interest in the plight of the poor and death.
3. Interest in remote areas, cemetery, ancient palaces, and monasteries.
4. Own country's biggest inspiration, far from industrial city life.
5. This period is a period in which nature is the source of important concepts.


Which produce prose fiction which is as follows:
A. Samuel Richardson (1689-1761), resulting in a novel titled: Pamela, or virtue rewarded (1740), Clarissa: or the history of a young lady (1748), Sir Charles Grandison (1753).
2. Henry Fielding (1707-1754), resulting in a novel titled: Shamela (1741), Joseph Andrews (1742), The History of the life of the late Mr. Jonathan Wild the Great (1743).
3. Tobias Smollet (1721-1771), resulting in a novel titled: The Adventures of Roderick Random (1748), The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle (1753), The life and adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves (1760), Travels France and Italy (1766), The Expedition of humpry clinker (1771). A number of Smollet's novel shaped adventures.

4.      Romanticism periods (1800-1850)

European history before and after the turn of the 18th century to the 19th century dominated by the French Revolution with its ideals, which is summed up in words: freedom, equality, and fraternity. Ideal-an ideal starting point is the belief in the dignity of the individual and his or her rights. That man is basically good, evil attached to it which is nothing but a natural result of being undermined by virtue of existing social institutions. Therefore, man should be freed and given a chance to better tg world may develop according to its nature which is good. In this new world there is no separation because of rank or social class, and which there is a sense of brotherhood between people who are equal. In such circumstances men with guided and guarded by feeling and instinct will achieve perfect happiness.
Above ideals, especially regarding the dignity of the individual and the virtue of nature, implicitly we have met in the works of writers who have such romantic kecenderungan2 Gray, Cowper, Burns, etc.. With the outbreak of the French revolution which is the climax of a combination of growth and flow of the idea of ​​objective conditions existing at the time that the European ideals had become explicit, and in literary English romantic movement which encouraged the rise of conscious and steady.

Charles dickens (oliver twice)
Jane ouistair
Hendri fielding (Josep filding Andrew)

5.     Victorian Period (1850-1900)

1. Because most of it coincided with bertahtanya
Queen Victoria
(1837-1901) 2.Masa this situation peacefully, and as long as it took place sosialyang important changes as well as economic development and technological growth.

2.Industrial Revolution
is any radical changes caused by pengetrapan new inventions in the technology industry and transportation.

3.At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution of the negative aspects more visible, palingserius problem is a very noticeable difference between the rich and the poor and labor yaitumajikan. To solve this problem a lot of ideas that emerged dandiantaranya accepted and implemented. Positive aspects seen in the general prosperity semakinmeningkat and intellectual activities.

4.Charles Darwin
is a scientist who lived during the years 1809-1882) denganhasil-the horrendous results of research published under the title
"TheOrigin of Species"
(1859) who proposed the theory of general biological interest.

5.caracteristic literatur this time called the Age of prose. A large number of periodical publications pembacaterbitan such as newspapers and magazines further encouraged the writing of prose to content published by a variety of news, ideas, reviews, etc.. Also developing story ideas are carried into novel form. Other characteristics, both prosamaupun pusisi perpetuated to a goal which is to improve moralmasyarakat.

6.Specific characteristics of this era is receding poems lyrical and spontaneous spirit of Romanticism as a digantika padazaman n the spirit of a more serious tone dankecenderungan toward setting standards in both form and dalamisi, creating a kind of puritanism that is famous for its
dantidak no more spontaneous style puritanism sesaat.8.Semacam the outburst of the famous with the problems of social, scientific dankeagamaan as subjects of his poems.

1. Charles Dickens, about a child whit crying in heart, "Nicholas Nickleby", Oliver Twist, David Copperfield, Great expectation
2. William Makepeace Thackeray